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Effets des paysages hétérogènes sur la diversité taxonomique et fonctionnelle et l’abondance des espèces

5 11 2015

Jérôme Fournier

La Gorgebleue à miroir, espèce caractéristique des marais salants

ARTICLE

Un article paraîtra prochainement dans Acta Ornithologica : Godet L., Devictor V., Burel F., Robin J.G., Ménanteau L. et Fournier J. 2016. Extreme landscapes decrease taxonomic and functional bird diversity but promote the presence of rare species.

Human activities may generate geometrical landscape structures that can significantly influence the spatial distribution of birds. While the distribution of birds in various landscape types has been extensively studied, the role played by landscape configuration and composition on different facets of bird diversity remain unclear. Here, we disentangle two main components of landscape characteristics (configuration and composition) and test their relative influence on three different facets of bird assemblages (taxonomic and functional characteristics, and the presence of rare species). We mapped and quantified the characteristics of four large coastal salinas of Western France made of highly geometrical and human-dominated landscapes and sampled terrestrial breeding birds in 172 point counts using a standardized protocol. We found that landscape composition had a higher influence on bird communities than landscape configuration, what fits with the “landscape composition hypothesis”. More specifically the most “extreme” landscapes (landscapes with low surfaces of terrestrial areas, low landscape richness and diversity, low cohesion, and highly patchy landscapes with complex geometrical shapes), tend to decrease bird taxonomic abundance, richness and diversity and functional richness, but promote the presence of rare species. Our results suggest that conservation plans in such geometrical and human-dominated habitats should not only focus on either one aspect of landscape characteristics or on one aspect of biological diversity but consider the adverse effects of landscape characteristics on these different facets.


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